The Eurachem reading list

3. Uncertainty of measurement


  • BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of measurement data Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM 1995 with minor corrections) ( (Printed as ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 (, link to free version
  • JCGM has produced a number of supplements to accompany the GUM, available at
    • Evaluation of measurement data – The role of measurement uncertainty in conformity assessment, JCGM 106:2012
    • Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 2 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" – Extension to any number of output quantities, JCGM 102:2011
    • Evaluation of measurement data – An introduction to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" and related documents, JCGM GUM 1:2023
    • Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" – Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, JCGM 101:2008
  • ISO 11352:2012 Water quality – Estimation of measurement uncertainty based on validation and quality control data (
  • ISO/TS 20914:2019. Medical laboratories – Practical guidance for the estimation of measurement uncertainty(
  • ISO 21748:2017. Guidance for the use of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation. (
  • ISO/TS 21749:2005. Measurement uncertainty for metrological applications – Repeated measurements and nested experiments. (
  • ISO/TS 28037:2010 Determination and use of straight line calibration functions (


  • A. Williams and B. Magnusson (Eds) Eurachem/CITAC Guide: Use of uncertainty information in compliance assessment (2nd ed. 2021). ISBN 978-0-948926-38-9 (
  • R. Bettencourt da Silva, A. Williams (Eds) Eurachem/CITAC Guide: Setting and using target uncertainty in chemical measurement (2015). ISBN 978-989-98723-7-0 (
  • S. L. R. Ellison, A. Williams (Eds) Eurachem/CITAC Guide: Quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement (3rd ed, 2012). ISBN 978-0-948926-30-3 (
  • ILAC G8:09/2019, Guidelines on decision rules and statements of conformity (
  • ILAC G17:01/2021 ILAC Guidelines for Measurement Uncertainty in Testing (
  • ILAC P14:09/2020, ILAC Policy for measurement uncertainty in calibration (
  • Decision rules applied to conformity assessment, Technical report No. 01/2017, EUROLAB, 2017 (
  • B. Magnusson, T. Näykki, H. Hovind, M. Krysell, Handbook for calculation of measurement uncertainty in environmental laboratories, Nordtest Report TR 537 ed 4:2017 (
  • EA-4/02 M, Evaluation of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration, 2022 (
  • N. Majcen and V Gegevičius (Ed.), Analytical measurement: measurement uncertainty and statistics, 2012, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ISBN 978-92-79-23071-4 (
  • N. Majcen, P. Taylor, T. Martišius, A. Menditto, M. Patriarca, Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry Vol 2, 2011, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (
  • N. Majcen, P. Taylor, L. Benedik, Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry Vol 1, 2010, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (
  • Measurement uncertainty revisited: Alternative approaches to uncertainty evaluation, Technical report No. 1/2007, EUROLAB, 2007 (
  • Guide to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for quantitative tests results, Technical report No. 1/2006, EUROLAB, 2006 (
  • Measurement uncertainty in testing, Technical report No. 1/2002, EUROLAB, 2002 (
  • Guidelines on Measurement Uncertainty, Codex Alimentarius, CXG 54-2004, 2021, (


Under Statistical Analysis tab

    • AMC TB 32-2008, Optimising your uncertainty – a case study
    • AMC TB 26A-2008, Measurement uncertainty and confidence intervals near natural limits
    • AMC TB 22-2006, Uncertainties in concentrations estimated from calibration experiments
    • AMC TB 21A-2008, The estimation and use of recovery factors
    • AMC TB 15-2003, Is my uncertainty estimate realistic?

Articles and reports

  • A. C. Olivieri, N. M. Faber, J. Ferré, R. Boqué, J. H. Kalivas, H. Mark, Uncertainty estimation and figures of merit for multivariate calibration, IUPAC Technical Report, Pure Appl. Chem., 2006, 78(3), 633-661,
  • J. Kragten, Calculating standard deviations and confidence intervals with a universally applicable spreadsheet technique, Analyst, 1994, 119, 2161-2166,


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